In a collagraph, the plate is built up and manipulated by the artist, using a collage-like process which combines a large array of materials such as glue, carborundum, sawdust, paints, filler, string, beads and more. The artist can also draw lines into the paint before it hardens. As a result, the plate may print as both relief and intaglio. Collagraph prints are inked and printed in a similar manner to an etching.
Etching, Engraving, Drypoint, Aquatint, Mezzotint, Collagraph, Photogravure.
The word intaglio (pronounced in-tal-yo) is derived from the Italian term meaning "I cut into". In this process, the areas incised or cut into a metal plate actually print the image while the un-cut surfaces are wiped clean. In etching, a plate, typically copper, aluminum or zinc which can be eaten away by acid, is coated with an acid-resistant substance. A sharp instrument draws the image, exposing the surface on the metal. The plate is immersed in an acid bath and the exposed metal surfaces become "acid etched," leaving lines or other areas recessed below the surface of the plate. In engraving, fine lines are incised directly into the plate and the burrs removed to produce clean, sharp lines on the print. Drypoint is similar to engraving but the burr is not removed, resulting in a soft, almost fuzzy line. In the aquatint process, areas covered by rosin powder become pitted when immersed in an acid bath. When inked and printed these pitted surfaces produce tonal or textural areas. In a mezzotint, a serrated tool is used to roughen areas that will retain ink to be printed, while areas to remain white are burnished and scraped smooth so that ink can be wiped away. In a collagraph, the surfaces to be printed are built up with cardboard or other materials that have been glued onto the plate. The collagraph may also be a relief printing method. In the photogravure process, the image is photochemically transferred to an etching plate that has been coated with a light-sensitive emulsion. The plate is then etched in acid using the standard intaglio process.
Viscosity etching is a 20th century intaglio process developed by Stanley William Hayter. A metal plate is deeply etched to produce several different surface levels. Inks of varying viscosities or oiliness are rolled onto the plate with hard or soft rollers. Very fluid effects may be produced with this technique.
Relief printing is one of the oldest printmaking techniques. Areas or lines are cut into the surface of the block with knives or gouges. Only the surface of the block receives the ink and prints the image. When the block is finished, ink is applied to the surface with rollers (brayers) or, in the oriental manner, by painting on the surface with a brush. Paper is then put face down on the block and run through a press or printed by hand with a wooden spoon or baren.
White-line woodcut is cut from a single block of wood and printed using water-based inks or paints. The white line that separates each section is the result of a carved furrow. Watercolor is applied by hand to each section and the block is rubbed or burnished to transfer the color to the paper.
- SCREEN PRINT
Screen printing is a stencil process using silk, polyester or other fine mesh fabric stretched on a frame. Non-image areas are blocked out on the screen using a variety of materials such as paper, glue or special films attached to the screen. The ink is forced through the openings in the fabric by a squeegee pulled across the surface of the screen. The process is repeated for each color. Screen printing is the only medium which does not print in reverse.
A monotype is created by drawing or painting onto a metal or glass plate, which is then printed by hand or on an etching press. There are no incised lines or acid areas bitten into the plate. The result is a one-of-a-kind print. A monoprint is the same as a monotype but includes repeatable incised areas on the plate
The surface used in lithography is either German limestone or a prepared metal lithographic plate. A greasy material is used to draw (or paint) the image onto the surface, alternativley an image be be drawn onto lexan film and transferred onto a lithographic photo plate using a light box, the subsequent chemical process is based on the principle that grease and water do not mix.. The surface is chemically treated (etched) to ensure the drawn (or painted areas) attract ink and the undrawn areas repel ink. During the printing process the surface is kept damp as ink is rolled over its surface. Paper is placed over the surface and it is rolled through the printing press. The mixture of drawn and painterly processes in lithography allows for a great deal of freedom in creating the image.